Friday, April 15, 2005

San Fernando: a city rich in architectural heritage

The City of San Fernando Heritage District covers the historic core of San Fernando, including Barangay Santo Rosario and parts of Barangays San Jose (Panlumacan), Santa Teresita (Baritan), Lourdes (Teopaco), Del Pilar, Santa Lucia and Santo Niño. The important sites in this area are the following:

Churches and other Religious Structures

Cathedral of San Fernando (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) The first structure of wood and thatch was built on the current site by the Agustinian friars in 1755 under the patronage of San Fernando III, King of Castille. On October 17, 1757, towsfolk petitioned the governor-general for exemptions from tribute to enable them to build the church and convent. It was transferred to the care of secular priests in 1788. The construction of the present church started during the same year under the supervision of Fr. Manuel Canlas, its first secular cura parroco, and a committee composed of the principales of the town led by then gobernadorcillo Don Bernabe Pamintuan. Construction was completed in 1808 and was rededicated to the Assumption of Our Lady. Italians artists Giovanni Divella and Cesare Alberoni were said to have been commissioned to paint the trompe l’oeil ceiling murals.

President Emilio F. Aguinaldo and his cabinet viewed the Philippine Revolutionary Army from the windows of the convento on October 9, 1898. The church and convento were burned by the Philippine Revolutionary Army on orders of Gen. Antonio Luna, on May 4, 1899. It was again destroyed by fire in 1939, and later restored by architect Fernando H. Ocampo.

Church of San Vicente (Barangay Calulut) – heavily damaged by renovations

Virgen de los Remedios Church (Barangay Baliti) – damaged by recent renovations


Heritage Houses

Hizon-Singian House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Built in 1870 by the couple Don Anacleto Hizon, gobernadorcillo of San Fernando from 1877-1879 and 1886-1887, and Victoria Singian de Miranda y de Ocampo. Inherited by their daughter Victoria Hizon y Singian who was married to Godofredo Rodriguez y Yabut from Bacolor. It was occupied during the 1896 revolution by Spanish General Antonio Ruiz Serralde, appropriated by the Japanese Imperial Army to serve as a military hospital and barracks from 1943 to 1944, and served as headquarters of American General Walter Krueger of the 6th American Army during the liberation period until the end of 1945. Inherited by their son, the late Gerry Catalino Rodriguez Y Hizon, former president of the Pampanga Sugar Development Company (PASUDECO), who was married to Aurora Angeles.

This bahay na bato of the Spanish colonial period was declared a Heritage House by the National Historical Institute on 27 January 2003 by virtue of Resolution No. 4, S. 2003.

Henson-Hizon House (V. Tiomico Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Built by the couple Saturnino Henson y David, gobernadorcillo of San Fernando from 1882-1883 and 1896, and the first tesorero municipal from 1900-1902, and Maria Lacson. Inherited by their eldest daughter Juana Henson y Lacson who was married to Florentino Hizon. Inherited by their son Vicente Hizon y Henson who was married to Concepcion Dizon y Dayrit. Inherited by their son Vicente Hizon y Dizon who was married to Anastacia de los Reyes. Purchased by the couple Pablo Panlilio y Dayrit and Dolores Arguelles.

This bahay na bato of the Spanish colonial period was declared a Heritage House by the National Historical Institute on 27 January 2003 by virtue of Resolution No. 3, S. 2003.

Lazatin House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Built in 1925 by the couple Serafin Lazatin y Ocampo, sugar farmer and former president of SFELAPCO, and Encarnacion Singian y Torres. It was appropriated by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second World War to Serve as a residence of the 14th Army Commander of the Japanese Imperial Army, General Masaharu Homma, in San Fernando, Pampanga.

This ancestral house, which exemplifies the architecture prevalent during the American colonial period was declared a Heritage House by the National Historical Institute on 27 January 2003 by virtue of Resolution No. 6, S. 2003.

Dayrit-Cuyugan House (MacArthur Highway, Barangay Dolores) Built in 1920 by the couple Joaquin Dayrit y Singian, sugar farmer, and Maria Paz Cuyugan y de Leon. Inherited by their eldest daughter Luz Dayrit y Cuyugan who was married to Ulderico Rodriguez from Bacolor.

This ancestral house, which exemplifies the architecture prevalent during the American colonial period was declared a Heritage House by the National Historical Institute on 27 January 2003 by virtue of Resolution No. 5, S. 2003.

Consunji House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Residence of the presidente municipal of San Fernando during the Philippine Revolution, Don Antonio Consunji y Espina.

Tabacalera House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Built by Tabacalera owned by Don Ramon Lopez. The first floor of the house served as the office of Tabacalera. The property was owned by Simeon Ocampo. During the Japanese Occupation, it was sequestered by the Japanese Imperial Army together with other residences in San Fernando, and served as the headquarters of the Kempeitai. Its current owner is Marco Lazatin.

Hizon-Ocampo House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) The first residence of Anacleto Hizon and Victoria Singian de Miranda, it has inherited by their daughter Leoncia Hizon who was married to Basilio Ocampo, gobernadorcillo of San Fernando. Among their children was renowned architect Fernando H. Ocampo.

Santos-Hizon House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) A turn-of-the-century Victorian-style house was built by the couple Teodoro Santos and Africa Ventura, it was later purchased by Maria Salome Hizon, a volunteer of the Red Cross during the Philippine Revolution. The property was acquired by her brother Ramon Hizon and is currently owned by the heirs of his son Augusto Hizon.

Pampanga Hotel (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Residence of Asuncion Santos, daughter of Don Teodoro Santos, Sr. (Dorong Tola), who married Andres Eusebio. It was the first site of the Pampanga High School when it first opened in 1908. Later became the site of the Harvardian College and the Pampanga Hotel and Panciteria, now Pampanga Lodge and Restaurant.

Singian House (A. Consunji Street formerly Sto. Niño Viejo, Paroba, Barangay San Juan)

Ocampo House (A. Consunji Street formerly Sto. Niño Viejo, Paroba, Barangay San Juan)

Santos Cuyugan House (A. Consunji Street formerly Sto. Niño Viejo, Paroba, Barangay San Juan)

Archdiocesan Chancery (A. Consunji Street, Barangay San Jose) This former residence of Luis Wenceslao Dison and Felisa Hizon was designed by Arch. Fernando H. Ocampo and completed in the mid-1930s. It was later purchased by the Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and is now being used as the Archdiocesan Chancery.

Cuyugan-Baron House (Cuyugan Road, Barangay Del Pilar) Residence of Vivencio Cuyugan y Baron, it was sequestered during the war and served as the Municipal Hall of San Fernando during the Japanese Occupation.

Dayrit-Galang House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay San Jose) Built by the couple Florentino Singian Dayrit and Juana Gatchalian Galang, among their children was Amando G. Dayrit, a popular pre-war columnist known for his Tribune column “Good Morning Judge.”

Santos-Miranda House (A. Consunji Street, Barangay San Jose) Built by the couple Teodosio Pekson Santos and Josefa Panlilio, it was purchased by the Miranda family.

Bamba House (Levi Panlilio Road, Barangay Sta. Lucia)

Sengson House (Levi Panlilio Road, Barangay Sta. Lucia)

The Chalets of Teopaco Subdivision (Barangay Lourdes) During the American colonial period, Teopaco Subdivision became the new residential area of San Fernando. The area was badly-damaged as a result of the 1995 floods. Several chalets still stand in the area despite the fact that street level has rose by at least one meter.

Aquino House (Barangay del Rosario)


Government Buildings, Schools, and Hospitals

Municipio of San Fernando (A. Consunji Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) The first casa municipal was built in the present site in 1755 out of stone and thatch. Burned by the Philippine Revolutionary Army on orders of Gen. Antonio Luna, on May 4, 1899. The building was again reconstructed in 1917 during the term of municipal president Antonio Abad Santos. Again burned during the Japanese invasion of the town, the municipal government was temporarily transferred to the residence of Vivencio Cuyugan in Barrio Del Pilar. After the war, the present City Hall of San Fernando was reconstructed using the original adobe stonework.

Pampanga Provincial Capitol (Capitol Boulevard, Barangay Santo Niño) Seat of government of the Province of Pampanga, the original building was constructed shortly after the provincial capital of Pampanga was transferred from Bacolor to San Fernando in 1904. Annexes were added before the war. It was the site of a major battle between guerilla forces and the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II.

Presidio (Artemio Macalino Street, Barangay Sto. Niño) Among the buildings built in 1907 when the property of the current Provincial Capitol was acquired. It used to house the courts of Pampanga before serving as the Pampanga Provincial Jail.

Provincial High School Building (Capitol Boulevard, Barangay Santo Niño) - heavily damaged by looters. Completed shortly after 1910 it served as the main building of the Pampanga High School until 1935 when it was transferred to its present site. The building was then used as an annex of the school. It also served as the site of the University of the Philippines Extension Program in San Fernando, Pampanga until floods hit San Fernando in 1995.

Beginnings of the Pampanga High School could be traced to the Eusebio Residence located near the town plaza of San Fernando where classes first began in 1908. Due to the lack of students, it was unable to form a senior class until 1911-1912. Its first principal was Mr. John W. Osborn. The school was later moved to this building near the Provincial Capitol in order to accommodate more students.

Pampanga High School Building (High School Boulevard, Barangay Lourdes) The current main building of Pampanga High School was completed in 1935. It follows Standard Plan No. 20 of Gabaldon schoolhouses and was restored as part of the Heritage Schoolhouse Restoration Program of the Department of Education and Heritage Conservation Society.

San Fernando Elementary School (B. Mendoza Street, Barangay Santo Rosario) Built in 1907, the main building of the San Fernando Elementary School follows Standard Plan No. 20 of Gabaldon schoolhouses.

Old St. Scholastica’s Academy (Pedro Abad Santos Road, Barangay Sta. Teresita) The former building of the St. Scholastica’s Academy of Pampanga, the third Benedictine school in the Philippines. Formerly known as the Assumption Academy, it was established in June of 1925 in the house of the Singian family. The first high school was eventually added. In March of 1930, the first secondary graduates of the Assumption Academy were presented.

Due to the large number of enrollees, and the zeal of its biggest benefactor, Monsignor Prudencio David, the school was relocated to its second site in 1931, and ownership of the school was passed on to the Benedictine Sisters in 1938. With the outbreak of World War II, the building was used as a military hospital. In 1966, the school was renamed St. Scholastica’s Academy of Pampanga. The school was transferred to a bigger site in 1972, leaving the old building without occupants.

Pampanga Provincial Hospital (Barangay Dolores) Built during the American colonial period, it is currently part of the Jose B. Lingad Memorial Regional Hospital.

Virgen de los Remedios Hospital (A. Consunji Street, Barangay San Jose)


Commercial Structures

The Arcaded Shop Buildings of Consunji Street - 1950s (Barangay Santo Rosario)


Industrial Structures and Sites

San Fernando Train Station (Barangay Santo Niño) Inaugurated by Governor-General Eulogio Despujol and Bernardino Nozaleda, Archbishop of Manila, on February 23, 1892. Jose P. Rizal debarked from the station on June 27, 1892 and again the next day en route to Bacolor. During the Death March in April 1942, it was the ending point of the 102-km Bataan Death March, from which Filipino and American prisoners-of-war were carted to Capas, Tarlac en route to their final destination, Camp O’Donnell.

PASUDECO Sugar Central (Capitol Boulevard, Barangay Santo Niño) In January 1918, a group of prominent Kapampangans gathered at the home of Gov. Honorio Ventura in San Fernando to form an organization that would construct a native-financed central. These included Jose de Leon, Augusto Gonzales, Francisco Liongson, Serafin Lazatin, Tomas Consunji, Francisco Hizon, Jose P. Henson and Manuel Urquico. The organization was formally incorporated in April 1918 as the Pampanga Sugar Development Company.

Finished in March 1921, the PASUDECO Sugar Central was the first Filipino-financed sugar central in Pampanga. Built through the initiative of the Pampanga Sugar Development Company, it was constructed by the Honolulu Iron Works. Its existence became a catalyst for the exponential growth of San Fernando, the capital of the rich sugar-producing province of Pampanga.

On July 12, 1939, tragedy struck when Jose de Leon, Augusto Gonzalez, and Constabulary Captain Julian Olivas were gunned down at the administrative offices of PASUDECO. At that time, de Leon and Gonzalez were the two richest men in Pampanga and the biggest PASUDECO shareholders. Together, they had made the central perhaps the most successful and progressively operated one in the archipelago.

Today, the PASUDECO Sugar Central stands as a testament to the resiliency of the Kapampangans as a people and their continuous drive towards progress and development. Indeed, the City of San Fernando and the entire Province of Pampanga owe a lot to the PASUDECO Sugar Central.

PASUDECO Staff Houses and Commissary (Capitol Boulevard, Barangay Santo Niño) Several wooden staff houses and commissaries of PASUDECO still stand in the lot adjacent to the sugar central.

The San Fernando Water Reservoir (Barangay Lourdes) Referred to as the “Leaning Tower of San Fernando” the San Fernando Water Reservoir was built during the term of municipal president Jose M. Valencia sometime in the 1920s. It was catapulted to national attention when several local government officials tried to lobby for its demolition. As a result of joint efforts of the City Tourism Office and the Heritage Conservation Society among others, a win-win solution was reached between the heritage advocates and the barangay officials.

The Sugar Pugons (Greenville Subdivision and Barangay Quebiawan)

Calulut Train Station (Barangay Calulut) – heavily damaged by illegal settlers. This wooden station was built during the American colonial period as an additional station along the Manila-Dagupan Railway.

Baluyut Bridge (Gen. Hizon Avenue, Barangay Santo Rosario) - bombed in WWII. Formerly know as Puente Colgante. Reconstructed in 1896 using iron and stone. Destroyed during the Philippine-American War in 1899. Reinforced concrete arch bridge later designed by Sotero Baluyut for his Bachelor’s thesis in the University of Iowa in 1909.

Witness to the historic events of the Philippine Revolution, Philippine-American War and World War II. Renamed the Sotero Baluyut Bridge in honor of his contributions to the province and the country, serving as governor, Secretary of Public Works and the Interior, and Senator.

6 comments:

jepoi said...

wow 1907 ya pa pala ing SFES didn't know that

ivanhenares said...

Yup, that's right. As I mentioned to the teaching force of SFES last January, next year is their centennial.

sempa said...

I used to live in Dayrit-Cuyugan House wayback in the 80's. It was nice to know that it is now preserved as Heritage treasue of San Fernando. I suddenly feel nostalgic looking at your photos. It's been more that 25 years since i last visited the place. Wish i could go back there someday. Thanks Ivan!

NengMac said...

I am a grandson of Judge Artemio Macalino. I didn't know that there was an Artemio Macalino Street. Perhaps the reason why they named that street for him was, my grandfather used to held office at the second floor of the Presidio as a Justice of the Peace. Also he was imprisoned there during the Japanese times. When i was young during the 70s i used to visit him there. I honor my grandfather for championing the cause of the poor. He served congressman of pamp, justice of the peace and executive judge of the court of agrarian relations. As it is written in his tomb, he is the prince of the have-nots

tian_1881 said...

The astounding story of my Grandfather Vivencio Cuyugan, please search his name on the web and see some article stating: "He went after PASUDECO, the biggest sugar central in Central Luzon, for dumping waste into the San Fernando River and polluting it."
i just wish that they made him a statue for his heroism. what would the GREENPEACE say about it? dapat ngayong panahon ding ito ay ipasara na yang PASUDECO na yan, it turned our river black, and the foul smell of the water it dumps on the river. "PASUDECO the biggest sugar company in air/water pollution emissions of San Fernando".

MinnieChun said...

do you have any info about vl makabali hospital, JBL hospital and mother theresa of calcutta hospital?